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GRAPHICS

Graphics is a subparser of charmm, invoked by via the GRAPH command. All of the miscellaneous commands (Miscellaneous Commands), coordinate commands (The Coordinate Manipulation Commands), and internal coordinate commands (The Internal Coordinate Manipulation Commands) are available from the GRAPHX> prompt. Only the 1st three characters are used for primary graphics commands, but many of the options require the 1st four characters.

The graphics facility has been extended to provide general X11 support, and the original Apollo GPR screen display has been dropped; a NODISPLAY version can also be built, which will generate all of the derived files. The other major enhancement is the production of PostScript output files, in either color or grayscale; both X11 and PostScript use the Apollo imaging model. Additional information on X11 usage tips and compiling for X11 are given at the end of this document. Finally, a recent addition is the production of input files for POV-Ray, an excellent freeware ray tracing package for making high quality molecular images. See http://www.povray.org

Option keywords are indicated by the use of upper case; lower case terms are variable values, generally real numbers, but decimal points are not required. Triplets ( x y z ) are position dependent; omitted values are assumed to be zero. Items enclosed in square brackets are [optional] but their absence often implies a default choice. Default choices are indicated with an asterisk (*) in syntax listings where apropriate.

GRAPHX COMMAND SUMMARY

Initializing, exiting:

GRAPhx  [XXSZ iwidth] [XYSZ iheight]  [ NVERtex integer ]
        [NOWIndow]

OFF                 :: disable all graphics and exit (see END, below).
END                 :: exit from command parser only; preserve window
RESet               :: revert to default view, scale
DEFault-colors      :: revert to default colors

HELp                :: provides a command listing

Available within the graphics subcommand parser:

miscellaneous-command-spec         ! see *note miscom:(chmdoc/miscom.doc).
IC        ic-subcommand-spec       ! see *note intcor:(chmdoc/intcor.doc).
COOR      coor-subcommand-spec     ! see *note corman:(chmdoc/corman.doc).
TRAJ      traj-subcommand-spec     ! see *note dynamc:(chmdoc/dynamc.doc).

These commands affect what is viewed:

DRAw [atom-selection]   :: change displayed atoms, force a redraw

DISplay [ON]* [MAIN]* [COMP] [BOND]* [VECT] [ATOM] [TEXT] -
        [OFF]
                      [HBONds] [LABEls] [AXES]    :: change displayed objects

COLor color-name [brightfactor] [COMP] atom-selection
                 [ LEVel izcue-level ]

  color-name =   NONE   RED  BLACk   YELLow GREEn  WHITe
                 BLUE   CYAN MAGEnta GRAY   ORANge BROWn
                 PURPle TURQuoise    CHARtreuse  DKBLue
                    (or an integer from 0 to 15)

  izcue-level = an integer from 0 to 11; 0 == brightest, 11 == dimmest

HBStyle  [COLOR color-name]  [WIDTH iwidth]  [DASH idash]  :: HBOND style
LBL  label-type  label-atoms  SIZE label-size COLOr label-color
   label-type  = INIT SEGId RESN RESId TYPE ATNUm CHEM CHARge WEIGht
                 USER user-label
   label-atoms = FIRSt and/or atom-selection
   label-size  = VSMAll SMALl MEDIum LARGe                   default: SMALL
   label-color = color-name ( see COLOR command above ... )  default: YELLOW
   user-label  = up to 8 characters

LINe iwidth         :: bonds or vectors; pixels
RADii [DEFaults] [PARam] atom-scale [bond-scale] atom-sel
AXEs  [XLIM xmin xmax] [YLIM ymin ymax] [ZLIM zmin zmax]
      [DEFAult]  (all limits set to -25, +25 A)
STEreo [ON/OFF] [dist] [angle]

TEXt [text-body]    :: set title text, null entry clears
FONT [ VSMAll | SMALl | MEDIum | LARGe ]  :: text font; default MEDIUM

These commands change the view only:

SCAle  factor [MOL/LAB] [REP int]
BOXsize size  [MOL/LAB]
CENter [atom-selection]
MAXwindow
POInt  x y z
ROTate rx ry rz  [MOL/LAB] [REP int]
TRAnslate x y z  [MOL/LAB] [REP int]
ZCLip [low] high
ZCUe [ [low] high ]/[AUTO]

These commands do not affect the display:

AUTo [ON*/OFF]      :: redraw after every command
ERAse [ON*/OFF]     :: screen clear prior to next drawing
EXEcute pathname    :: execute a program; no arguments are passed

Output Files: the UNIT must be OPENed first...

PLUto UNIT n                                 :: PLUTO FDAT file
MAKE  UNIT n                                 :: LIGHT .atm file

PSC   UNIT n [COLOr] [BWREv] [PORTrait]      :: PostScript file
             [INIT]
        [TERM]

POV   UNIT n  [ INIT ]                       :: POV-Ray file
              [ TERM ]
              [ INCLude n ]  [ UOBJ n ]
              [ OBJect  obj-spec ]

(see the description for full syntax details)

DETAILED COMMAND DESCRIPTION

  • GRAPHX

    GRAPhx  [XXSZ iwidth]   [XYSZ iheight]     [NVERtex integer]
            [NOWIndow]

    Invoked from the main CHARMM command parser; if already initialized (i.e. GRAPHX ... END) the previous graphic states are retained.

    The XXSZ and XYSZ options set the X11 window width and height for the duration of the graphics session; a window resize is NOT passed back to graphics code at this time.

    The NVERtex option increases the allocated storage for the vertex array used by the POV-Ray object code, especially for the MESH and RIBBON objects; the default is set to NATOM. but may need to be increased for scripts which create a lot of POV objects, especially RIBBON objects.

    The NOWIndow option suppresses the X11 window for batch mode or remote usage; ideal for making PostScript files, etc.

  • HELP

    HELp
    

    List the available commands and syntax.

  • OFF

    OFF
    

    Disable all graphics and exit the graphics subcommand parser; see also the END command.

  • END

    END
    

    Exit from command parser only; allows other CHARMM commands to be performed w/o losing the current display. Re-invoking graphics does not re-initialize the graphics settings. Useful for trajectory movies using MERGE DRAW, e.g.

    end
    open unit 12 read file name dyn.trj.10
    merge draw firstu 12 nunit 1
    graphics

    Overlays can be created (on screen only) by preceding the END command in the above example with ERAse OFF.

  • RESET

    RESet
    

    Restores view settings to the program defaults ( scale, translation and rotations).

  • DISPLAY

    DISplay [ON*]  [MAIN*] [COMP] [VECT] [ATOM] [BOND*] [TEXT] [HBONds] -
            [OFF]
                   [LABEls] [AXES]

    Turns the display of various graphic features on or off; the default is DISPLAY ON MAIN BOND TEXT which will show the connectivity of the atoms in main coordinate set, using the default CHARMM title. The options are:

    ON/OFF

    enable (default) or disable the display of a feature

    MAIN

    the main coordinate set; displayed by default

    COMP

    the comparison coordinate set; both may be displayed

    BOND

    atom connectivity as atom-colored half-bonds; default

    ATOM

    filled circles using current radius (see RADII)

    TEXT

    title display

    HBONDS

    current HBOND list, using double width lines

    LABELS

    residue names, atom types, user labels ...

    AXES

    lab frame axes; + end solid, labeled; - end dashed

    Examples:

    display atom on          ! enable atom display; MAIN assumed
    display text             ! toggles title display
    display hbonds off       ! disable H-bond display
  • DRAW

    DRAw [atom-selection]
    

    Forces a redraw when AUTO mode is off; also used to to change which set of atoms is currently being displayed. All display modes and output files from PLOT, PSC, PLUTO, XMOLE, and MAKE commands use this atom selection. The initial selection is all atoms and may be restored via:

    draw sele all end
  • COLOR

    COLor color-name [brightfactor] [COMP] atom-selection
                     [LEVel i]

    Sets the color of individual atoms according to the atom selection, using one of the color names below:

    NONE   RED  BLACk   YELLow GREEn  WHITe
    BLUE   CYAN MAGEnta GRAY   ORANge BROWn
    PURPle TURQuoise    CHARtreuse  DKBLue

    The color applies to the main coordinate set unless COMP is specified; brightfactor is a relative intensity, 0.0 – 1.0 Alternatively, the zcue levels may be set directly to one of the indices, an integer in the range 0:11 with 0 being fully bright.

    Setting all atoms to WHITE, and using the brightfactor gives the best control over how PostScript grayscale output will look on the printed page; note that NONE is background, BLACK is the basic carbon color is really gray, and WHITE will be black in PostScript grayscale output or in color output with black/white reversal.

    Examples: All carbons for segment s are colored cyan:

    color cyan sele type c* .and. segid s end

    Colored based on weighting array:

    color green lev 11 sele prop wmain .gt. 1.0 end
    color green lev 10 sele prop wmain .gt. 2.0 end
                   :
                  etc.
  • DEFAULT

    DEFault-colors
    

    Restore the default color assignments, based on element type.

    Example:

    default
    
  • LINE

    LINe iwidth  (bonds or vectors; pixels)

    Set the line width for bonds & vectors, in pixels (integer).

    Example:

    line 2
  • RADII

    RADii [DEFaults] [PARam] scale [bond] atom-sel

    Sets the radius for displaying atoms, and for output files produced by the PLOT, PSC, XMOLE, and MAKE commands. The options are:

    scale

    required if no other options are specified, and assumed to be 1.0 if omitted; performs a relative scale if used by itself, or scales the radii set by the DEFAULT or PARAM options

    DEFAULTS

    set radii to a convenient size for display, based on atom type ( C, N, O, ... )

    PARAM

    use VDW radii

    bond

    value for bond radii for LIGHT program (see MAKE)

    atom-sel

    atom selection to apply the radii command to

    Examples:

    rad 0.8                       ! reduces radii to 80% of current value
    radii param .5                ! set radii to 50% of VDW
    radii param .5  .15           ! bond radii to 0.15 A
    rad 1.5 sele type H* end      ! enlarge all H atoms by 50%
  • LBL

    LBL  label-type  label-atoms  SIZE label-size  COLOR label-color
    label-type  = INIT SEGID RESN* RESID* TYPE CHEM CHARGE WEIGHT USER user-label
    label-atoms = FIRST* and/or atom-selection
    label-size  = VSMALL SMALL* MEDIUM LARGE
    label-color = color-name ( see COLOR command above; default: YELLOW )
    user-label  = up to 8 characters

    The LBL command identifies which atoms are to be labeled, what atom attributes are to be included in the label, and the relative size of the labels; the defaults are marked with an asterisk [*].

    The INIT option clears all labels, and any other options are ignored.

    One or more the following attributes may be included in the label, by simply including the keyword(s) in the LBL statement:

    SEGId

    segment name (from GENErate; A4)

    RESN

    residue name (from the RTF; A4)

    RESId

    residue ID, a numeral (A4)

    TYPE

    atom type, e.g. N, CA, CB ... (A4)

    CHEM

    atom parameter type code (A4)

    CHARge

    atomic charge (G12.4)

    WEIGht

    value stored in the weight vector (G12.4)

    USER

    arbitrary user-specified text (A8)

    The label length (24 bytes) is such that all attributes may NOT be displayed simulaneously; in particular, CHARge and WEIGht may not be displayed at the same time for the same atom.

    SIZE is specified by one the keywords VSMALL, SMALL, MEDIUM, LARGE, with a default of SMALL. The COLOR keyword allows setting the label color, using the same color names as the COLor command; the default label color is yellow. Each use of the LBL command can create a group of labels of a different size and color, for atoms which don’t overlap with any previous label atom selections.

    The blank delimited word following the keyword USER, up to 8 characters, allows the use of any text string as a label for the selected atoms.

    The default is to label the first atom of each residue; an atom selection overrides this, unless the FIRSt keyword is present; in this case, the first atom of each selected residue is labeled.

    Examples:

    ! the first atom of each residue is labeled by name with normal text
    LBL RESN COLOR CYAN
    
    ! the first atom of each residue in the segment MAIN is labeled
    ! by name and number with very small text
    LBL RESN RESID FIRST SELE SEGID MAIN END SIZE VSMALL
    
    ! all oxygen atoms are labeled by charge with small text
    LBL CHARGE SELE TYPE O* END COLOR CHAR
    
    ! all alpha-carbons are labeled by the weight vector with medium text
    LBL WEIGHT SELE TYPE CA END SIZE MEDIUM
    
    ! enter a null label; may be used to selectively "blank" labels
    ! in this case, all alpha-carbon labels are set to a string of blanks
    ! for display efficiency, LBL INIT is preferable
    LBL SELE TYPE CA END USER
    
    ! show the location of formal charges on amino acid side chains
    LBL USER - SELE RESN ASP .AND. TYPE CG END SIZE LARGE COLOR GREEN
    LBL USER - SELE RESN GLU .AND. TYPE CD END SIZE LARGE COLOR GREEN
    LBL USER + SELE RESN ARG .AND. TYPE CZ END SIZE LARGE COLOR GREEN
    LBL USER + SELE RESN LYS .AND. TYPE NZ END SIZE LARGE COLOR GREEN
  • HBSTYLE

    HBStyle  [COLOR color-name]  [WIDTH iwidth]  [DASH idash]

    Set the style for representing HBONDS; color-name is as for the COLOR command, and iwidth and idash are integers in pixel units. Specifying HBSTYLE alone resets to the default style, which is equivalent to

    HBSTYLE COLOR ORANGE WIDTH 4 DASH 4    (N.B. DASH 0 = solid line)

    If at least one option (COLOR, WIDTH, or DASH) is specified, the remaining options are unchanged; thus HBSTYLE COLOR WHITE will not reset the WIDTH to 4 pixels, but leave it as it was.

  • AXES

    AXEs  [XLIM xmin xmax] [YLIM ymin ymax] [ZLIM zmin zmax]
          [DEFAult]

    Changes the length of the displayed axes; the default, which is restored via the DEFAult keyword, is -25 to +25 A for each dimension. Only the axes lines specified are changed, e.g. AXES ZLIM -5 5 only changes the endpoints of the Z axes line.

  • STEREO

    STEreo [ON/OFF] [dist] [angle]
    

    Invoke side-by-side stereo mode for screen display and for output files produced by the PLOT and MAKE commands, when the ON keyword is used, or when stereo is off. The dist option controls the separation between the two images; the angle option specifies the parallax angle for left and right eye views. The OFF keyword is used to return to mono mode, and is assumed if the command is used while in stereo mode. The default angle is 7 degrees, but the dist parameter defaults to an interval derived from the window width; wider windows are best for stereo.

    Example:

    stereo on 16.0 7
  • TEXT

    TEXT [ text-body | "text-body" ]
    

    Supply the text for the title display; quotes override the conversion to all upper case, and a null entry clears the current title. The quotes are removed, and are not displayed as part of the title; the current CHARMM title is the default graphics title.

  • FONT

    FONt [ VSMAll | SMALl | MEdium | LArge ]
    

    Change the title font to one of four sizes; the initial setting is MEDIUM, as is the default if no size is specified.

  • SCALE

    SCAle  factor [MOL/LAB] [REP int]

    Change the Angstrom/pixel scale factor; initially, 1 A = 32 pixels. The repeat factor can provide an ersatz zoom effect. The default is the LAB frame (i.e. scale is done relative to screen center rather then the system center).

  • BOXSIZE

    BOXsize size  [MOL/LAB]

    Set the viewing ‘box’ to (size)x(size), in Angstroms.

  • CENTER

    CENter [atom-selection]
    

    Move the selected atoms to the center of display space.

  • MAXWINDOW

    MAXwindow
    

    Scales the molecule to fit in the display window.

  • POINT

    POInt  x y z

    The point specified by x y z becomes the center of display space.

  • ROTATE

    ROTate rx ry rz  [MOL/LAB] [REP int]

    Apply a rotation to the viewing transform; does not affect the coordinates. The default is the LAB frame (i.e. a Z rotation always spins the screen). If the MOL (molecule) frame is used, then the rotation will be about the origin of the molecular coordinate system (i.e. does not depend on the current view matrix).

    (NOTE1: the ROTate command uses a left handed system, multiply rotation angles by -1 as necessary).

    (NOTE2: if more than one rotation angle is given as nonzero, then the rotations will occur sequentially, first x, then y, and then z).

    Examples:

    rot 0 90       ! rotate by 90 deg around the y axis
    rotate 180     ! rotate by 180 deg around the x axis
    rot 90 0 90    ! rotate by 90 deg around x, then 90 deg around z
  • TRANSLATE

    TRAnslate x y z  [MOL/LAB] [REP int]

    Apply a translation to the viewing transform; does not affect the coordinates.

    Examples:

    tran 2 9.5     ! translate +2 A along x axis, +9.5 along y axis
    tra 0 0 4      ! translate +4 axis along the z axis
  • ZCLIP

    ZCLip [low] high

    Set hither and yon clip limits; atoms outside the limits are not displayed, whether selected or not.

    Examples:

    zclip 10       ! atoms outside z = ( -10 .. +10 ) are not displayed
    zclip -5 10
  • ZCUE

    ZCUe [[low] high ]/[AUTO]

    Controls the z coordinate range over which depth cueing will be applied. AUTO use the displayed atom coordinates to set the limits.

    Examples:

    zcue 10        ! zcue from -10 to +10
    zcue -4 8
    zcue auto
  • AUTO

    AUTo [ON/OFF]
    

    Enables or disables automatic redraw after every command; the initial setting is ON, and the command functions as a toggle. AUTO OFF is useful for making multiple changes without the time required for a redraw.

  • ERASE

    ERAse [ON/OFF]
    

    Enables or disables a screen clear prior to the next drawing; the initial setting is ON, and the command functions as a toggle. ERASE OFF is useful for overlaying trajectory frames or other related collections of structures. Possibly best used with AUTO OFF, and using DRAW for each structure. Also applies to POV and PSC commands; after using the INIT keyword, the file is not closed until one of the following:

    1. PSC/POV command with TERMinate keyword; only correct method
    2. the UNIT is CLOSEd; no title or page eject, etc.
    3. the program terminates; no title or page eject, etc.

    Creates an overlay of 50 consecutive trajectory frames (coord traj open on unit 20; .ps file open on unit 12):

    erase off
    psc unit 12 init
    set n 1
    label frmlp
    coor read file unit 20 ifile -1
    psc unit 12
    let n += 1
    if n .lt. 50 goto frmlp
    psc unit 12 term
  • EXECUTE

    EXEcute pathname

    Execute a program w/o arguments.

    Example:

    exe /bin/ls         ! list the current directory  (unix)

    Equivalent to the SYSTem command (Miscellaneous Commands)

Output Facility

  • PSC

    PSC UNIT n [COLOr] [PORTrait] [BWREverse] [INIT | TERM]

    Writes out a PostScript display file using the current viewing transform and selected atoms; the default is grayscale in landscape mode, and may be changed using the COLOr and/or PORTrait keywords. Colors are direct translations of the RGB color map used for Apollo and X11 displays, or arbitrary conversions to grayscale. Direct control over grayscale may be achieved by setting all atoms to COLOR WHITE, and using the ‘brightfactor’ option of the COLOR command to set the various gray levels; note that full WHITE is black, since the background (paper) is white in grayscale mode. The default background is black in COLOR mode, but may changed to white with BWREverse keyword; atoms or text colored white on the screen will be printed in black. As always, the UNIT must be opened first (recommended file extension .ps).

    The INIT keyword forces device initialization in ERASE OFF mode, and should only be used in that context; it is not normally required. Likewise, the TERM keyword writes the final part of the PostScript file in ERASE OFF mode, and does not draw the structure; only the graphics title and the final few PostScript commands are written to the file. See the ERAse command for additional details and a usage example.

  • PLUTO

    PLUto UNIT n

    Writes out atom coordinates and connectivity based on the current atom selection and view transform, in CSD FDAT format.

    Warning

    999 atom limit!

    Stereo mode settings are ignored, as are radii and color. Also, atoms should be renamed to their element types to get proper radii, etc within pluto (e.g. CA is not carbon alpha, it’s calcium). As with PLOT, the UNIT must be opened first ( recommended file extension .fdat ).

    Example:

    rename atom C1 sele type C  end
    rename atom C2 sele type CA end
    rename atom N1 sele type N  end
    rename atom O1 sele type O  end
    rename atom H1 sele type H1 end
       ! etc., etc., etc.
    graphics
    scale .5
    rot 0 90
    open unit 50 write card name molecule.fdat
    pluto unit 50
  • MAKE

    MAKE  UNIT n

    Writes atom coordinates, radii, and color to a file formatted for the LIGHT program (available from the N.I.H.) which produces nice ray-traced images using current stereo settings and view transform.

    A 1280x1024 window is the optimum size for best scaling and centering of the image produced by LIGHT.

    The UNIT must be opened first; the LIGHT program requires that an extension of .atm be use for the file name.

  • POV

    POV  UNIT int  [ INIT ]  [ INCLude int ]
                   [ TERM ]
    
            Write atom-based objects; bonds, atoms, H-bonds, labels
    
      UNIT int    :: final POV file; user must open; also open int+1 for stereo
      INCLude int :: read file w. user override of default camera, lighting, ...
    
      INIT        :: intialize POV file in ERASE OFF mode (overlays)
      TERM        :: close POV file in ERASE OFF mode; other options ignored

    All units must be opened; in STEreo mode, UNIT numbers are used in pairs as N, N+1 for the left- and right-eye views. The atom, bonds, H-bonds, and labels currently displayed are written to the file; just as for the X11 display and PostScript output, this is determined by the last atom selection used with a DRAw command, and graphics elements enabled via the DISplay command. The current viewpoint is used for transforming coordinates for the POV output file, and the graphics SCAle determines the camera distance. The atom radii are determined from the current graphics RADii, while the bond cylinders are scaled based on the graphics LINe width.

    The POV file produced (recommended extension .pov) is a flat text file, and may be manually edited to further customize the image that will be ultimately created by processing the POV file. Note that CHARMM only creates an input file for POV-Ray; it is assumed that the user has access to version 3.x of the POV-Ray program. When using the povray3 program on Unix systems, the PPM bitmap output format is recommended. For details on obtaining and using the POV-Ray program, see the web site at http://www.povray.org

    The INCLude file provides an easy mechanism to add user customization, e.g. changing the light sources or camera position, or adding other POV-Ray objects to be displayed. Comments in the POV input file created indicate the section which is completely replaced by the userfile; using the CHARMM supplied default setup as a template for INCLude files is strongly encouraged.

    The INIT keyword forces device initialization in ERASE OFF mode, and should only be used in that context; it is not normally required. Likewise, the TERM keyword writes the final part of the POV file in ERASE OFF mode, and does not output a structure; only the graphics title is written to the file. See the ERAse command for additional details and a PSC (PostScript) usage example.

    Example: write a single POV file

    open unit 21 write card name protein.pov
    pov unit 21

    Example: write two POV files for a stereo image pair

    open unit 21 write card name protein-l.pov
    open unit 22 write card name protein-r.pov
    pov unit 21

X11 Usage Tips

On some workstations, the graphics display colors will only be correct when that window has “focus”.

The recommended “focus” policy is pointer-has-focus, i.e. the active window is whichever one the mouse pointer is in; this permits typing graphics commands in a mostly obscured terminal window (xterm, winterm, hpterm, aixterm, etc.). The alternative is to “lower” the text command window via the window manager. Automatic “topping” of the window with focus is not recommended.

Although the graphics display window can be resized, the size change is not currently passed back to the drawing routines.

X11 Compiling Problems

The default assumptions are:

  1. required include files (Xlib.h, Xutil.h) reside in /usr/include/X11
  2. the library libX11.a resides in /usr/lib/X11

These files must exist for the X11 graphics to be compiled, and of course the keyword XDISPLAY must be in the pref.dat file. If the files are NOT in the standard places (such as under HP-UX), the compile option -I may be needed to point to the directory with the include files, and the corresponding -L option may be needed to point to the directory which contains libX11.a for the final link step.

Other Useful Programs (all “freeware”)

(1) ghostscript – besides allowing on screen preview of PostScript files prior to printing, this useful utility can convert the .ps files output by the PSC command to other formats (e.g. GIF, PBM) and can also be used to make an “encapsulated” PostScript (EPS) file. Available via FTP from almost any software archive that distributes GNU software (Free Software Foundation).

(2) xfig – this X11-based technical drawing package can read EPS files, and provides an ideal way to do “pasteup” of PostScript files from diverse sources into a composite figure. Available via FTP from sites carrying X11 software; hardware specific sites may have versions pre-configured for SGI, HP, etc.

(3) pbmplus, netpbm – this suite of bitmap manipulation programs offers the best looking conversion to GIF files, using a PBM file from ghostscript as an intermediate file type. The names pbmplus and netpbm indicate minor variants of the same suite, with netpbm being more recent, according to UseNet lore. Available at the MIT X11 site, and similar FTP sites.

(4) light – a ray-tracing program written by BR Brooks at NIH, which uses the file format ouput by the graphics MAK command; used to produce movies and slick-looking single images for presentations. Contact the author.

(5) gnuplot – 2D and 3D graphics, with X11 and PostScript support (and about 50 other output devices as well); useful for time series plots, etc., which can be combined with molecular graphics via xfig (see above). Available at most GNU sites and from the “home” site at Dartmouth.

(6) ImageMagick – a powerful suite of image manipulation programs, including animation capabilities; available at ftp.x.org

(7) MPEG – mpegencode and mpegplay produce and replay animations; multiple images in PBM format can be combined into a movie